Journal Articles


  1. S. Li, H. Zhao, R. F. Shepherd, Flexible and stretchable sensors for fluidic elastomer actuated soft robots. MRS Bulletin.
  2. 2016

  3. H. Zhao, K. O’Brien, S. Li, R. F. Shepherd, Optoelectronically innervated soft prosthetic hand via stretchable optical waveguides. Science Robotics.
  4. Lao, L., Robinson, S. S., Peele, B. N., Zhao, H., Mac Murray, B. C., Min, J., Mosedehg, B., Dunham, S., Shepherd, R. F. (2016). Selective Mineralization of Tough Hydrogel Lumens for Simulating Arterial Plaque. Advanced Engineering Materials.
  5. Li, S., Peele, B. N., Larson, C. M., Zhao, H., Shepherd, R. F. (2016). A Stretchable Multicolor Display and Touch Interface Using Photopatterning and Transfer Printing. Advanced Materials.
  6. A. Argiolas, B. C. Mac Murray, I. V. Meerbeek, J. Whitehead, E. Sinibaldi, B. Mazzolai, R. F. Shepherd (2016). Sculpting Soft Machines. Journal of Soft Robotics.
  7. H. Zhao, J. Jalving, R. Huang, R. Knepper, A. Ruina, R. Shepherd (2016). A Helping Hand: Soft Orthosis with Integrated Optical Strain Sensors and EMG Control. IEEE Robotics & Automation Magazine.
  8. C. Larson, B. Peele, S. Li, S. Robinson, M. Totaro, L. Beccai, B. Mazzolai, R. Shepherd (2016). Highly stretchable electroluminescent skin for tactile sensing and optical signaling. Science, 351(6277), 1071-1074. (First author)
  9. V. Meerbeek, I. M., MacMurray, B., Kim, J. W., Robinson, S. S., Zou, P., Silberstein, M., Shepherd, R. (2016). Morphing Metal and Elastomer Bicontinuous Foams for Reversible Stiffness, Shape Memory, and Self-Healing Soft Machines. Advanced Materials
  10. 2015

  11. Mac Murray, B. C., An, X., Robinson, S. S., van Meerbeek, I. M., O'Brien, K. W., Zhao, H., & Shepherd, R. F. (2015). Poroelastic Foams for Simple Fabrication of Complex Soft Robots. Advanced Materials.
  12. Robinson, S. S., O’Brien, K. W., Zhao, H., Peele, B. N., Larson, C. M., Mac Murray, B. C., ... & Shepherd, R. F. (2015). Integrated soft sensors and elastomeric actuators for tactile machines with kinesthetic sense. Extreme Mechanics Letters 5 (2015): 47-53.
  13. Larson, C. M., Choi, J. J., Gallardo, P. A., Henderson, S. W., Niemack, M. D., Rajagopalan, G., & Shepherd, R. F. (2015). Direct Ink Writing of Silicon Carbide for Microwave Optics. Advanced Engineering Materials.
  14. Peele, B. N., Wallin, T. J., Zhao, H., & Shepherd, R. (2015). 3D printing antagonistic systems of artificial muscle using projection stereolithography. Biomimetics and Bioinspiration, 10(5):055003.
  15. Zhao, H., Li, Y., Elsamadisi, A., & Shepherd, R. (2015). Scalable manufacturing of high force wearable soft actuators. Extreme Mechanics Letters, 3, 89-104.
  16. 2014

  17. Kwok, S. W., Morin, S. A., Mosadegh, B., So, J. H., Shepherd, R. F., Martinez, R. V., et al. (2014). Magnetic Assembly of Soft Robots with Hard Components. [Article]. Advanced Functional Materials, 24(15), 2180-2187.
  18. Morin, S. A., Kwok, S. W., Lessing, J., Ting, J., Shepherd, R. F., Stokes, A. A., et al. (2014). Elastomeric Tiles for the Fabrication of Inflatable Structures. [Article]. Advanced Functional Materials, 24(35), 5541-5549.
  19. Morin, S. A., Shevchenko, Y., Lessing, J., Kwok, S. W., Shepherd, R. F., Stokes, A. A., et al. (2014). Using “Click-e-Bricks” to Make 3D Elastomeric Structures. [Article]. Advanced Materials, 26(34), pg. 5991.
  20. Mosadegh, B., Mazzeo, A. D., Shepherd, R. F., Morin, S. A., Gupta, U., Sani, I. Z., et al. (2014). Control of soft machines using actuators operated by a Braille display. [Article]. Lab on a Chip, 14(1), 189-199.
  21. Mosadegh, B., Polygerinos, P., Keplinger, C., Wennstedt, S., Shepherd, R. F., Gupta, U., et al. (2014). Pneumatic Networks for Soft Robotics that Actuate Rapidly. [Article]. Advanced Functional Materials, 24(15), 2163-2170.
  22. Messner W, Paik J, Shepherd R, Kim S, & Trimmer B (2014) Energy for Biomimetic Robots: Challenges and Solutions. Soft Robotics 1(2):106-109.
  23. Stokes A, Shepherd R, Morin S, Ilievski F, & Whitesides G (2014) A Hybrid Combining Hard and Soft Robots. Soft Robotics 1(1):70-74.
  24. Tolley MT, Shepherd RF, Mosadegh B, Galloway KC, Wehner M, Karpelson M, Wood RJ, Whitesides GM (2014). A Resilient, Untethered Soft Robot. Soft Robotics 1(3): 213-223. Most cited article in the journal of Soft Robotics.
  25. Wehner M, Tolley MT, Menguc Y, Park Y-L, Mozeika A, Ding Y, Onal C, Shepherd RF, Whitesides GM, Wood RJ (2014). Pneumatic Energy Sources for Autonomous and Wearable Soft Robotics. Soft Robotics 1(4):263-274.
  26. 2013

  27. Shepherd, R. F., Stokes, A. A., Nunes, R. M. D., & Whitesides, G. M. (2013). Soft Machines That are Resistant to Puncture and That Self Seal. [Article]. Advanced Materials, 25(46), 6709-6713.
  28. Majidi, C., Shepherd, R. F., Kramer, R. K., Whitesides, G. M., & Wood, R. J. (2013). Influence of surface traction on soft robot undulation. [Article]. International Journal of Robotics Research, 32(13), 1577-1584.
  29. Martinez, R. V., Branch, J. L., Fish, C. R., Jin, L. H., Shepherd, R. F., Nunes, R. M. D., et al. (2013). Robotic Tentacles with Three-Dimensional Mobility Based on Flexible Elastomers. [Article]. Advanced Materials, 25(2), 205-212.
  30. Shepherd, R. F., Stokes, A. A., Freake, J., Barber, J., Snyder, P. W., Mazzeo, A. D., et al. (2013). Using Explosions to Power a Soft Robot. [Article]. Angewandte Chemie-International Edition, 52(10), 2892-2896.
  31. 2012

  32. Morin, S. A., Shepherd, R. F., Kwok, S. W., Stokes, A. A., Nemiroski, A., & Whitesides, G. M. (2012). Camouflage and Display for Soft Machines. [Article]. Science, 337(6096), 828-832. Cited by 194.
  33. Shepherd, R. F., Conrad, J. C., Sabuwala, T., Gioia, G. G., & Lewis, J. A. (2012). Structural evolution of cuboidal granular media. [Article]. Soft Matter, 8(17), 4795-4801.
  34. Tricard, S., Feinstein, E., Shepherd, R. F., Reches, M., Snyder, P. W., Bandarage, D. C., et al. (2012). Analog modeling of Worm-Like Chain molecules using macroscopic beads-on-a-string. [Article]. Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, 14(25), 9041-9046.
  35. 2011

  36. Shepherd, R. F., Ilievski, F., Choi, W., Morin, S. A., Stokes, A. A., Mazzeo, A. D., et al. (2011). Multigait soft robot. [Article]. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 108(51), 20400-20403. Cited by 480.
  37. Ilievski, F., Mazzeo, A. D., Shepherd, R. E., Chen, X., & Whitesides, G. M. (2011). Soft Robotics for Chemists. Angewandte Chemie-International Edition, 50(8), 1890-1895. Cited by 413.
  38. Conrad, J. C., Ferreira, S. R., Yoshikawa, J., Shepherd, R. F., Ahn, B. Y., & Lewis, J. A. (2011). Designing colloidal suspensions for directed materials assembly. [Review]. Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science, 16(1), 71-79.
  39. Shepherd, J. N. H., Parker, S. T., Shepherd, R. F., Gillette, M. U., Lewis, J. A., & Nuzzo, R. G. (2011). 3D Microperiodic Hydrogel Scaffolds for Robust Neuronal Cultures. [Article]. Advanced Functional Materials, 21(1), 47-54.
  40. Earlier work

  41. Barry, R. A., Shepherd, R. F., Hanson, J. N., Nuzzo, R. G., Wiltzius, P., & Lewis, J. A. (2009). Direct-Write Assembly of 3D Hydrogel Scaffolds for Guided Cell Growth. [Article]. Advanced Materials, 21(23), pg. 2407.
  42. Shepherd, R. F., Panda, P., Bao, Z., Sandhage, K. H., Hatton, T. A., Lewis, J. A., et al. (2008). Stop-Flow Lithography of Colloidal, Glass, and Silicon Microcomponents. [Article]. Advanced Materials, 20(24), pg. 4734.
  43. Shepherd, R. F., Conrad, J. C., Rhodes, S. K., Link, D. R., Marquez, M., Weitz, D. A., et al. (2006). Microfluidic assembly of homogeneous and janus colloid-filled hydrogel granules. [Article]. Langmuir, 22(21), 8618-8622. Cited by 245.
  44. Xu, M. J., Gratson, G. M., Duoss, E. B., Shepherd, R. F., & Lewis, J. A. (2006). Biomimetic silicification of 3D polyamine-rich scaffolds assembled by direct ink writing. [Article]. Soft Matter, 2(3), 205-209.
  45. Therriault, D., Shepherd, R. F., White, S. R., & Lewis, J. A. (2005). Fugitive inks for direct-write assembly of three-dimensional microvascular networks. [Article]. Advanced Materials, 17(4), pg. 395.
  46. Smay, J. E., Gratson, G. M., Shepherd, R. F., Cesarano, J., & Lewis, J. A. (2002). Directed colloidal assembly of 3D periodic structures. [Article]. Advanced Materials, 14(18), pg. 1279.

Conference Proceedings

  1. Zhao H, Huang R, & Shepherd R, (2016). Curvature Control of Soft Orthotics via Low Cost Solid-State Optics. International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA). IEEE (2016).
  2. Tolley M, et al. (2014) An Untethered Jumping Soft Robot. in International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (Chicago, IL).
  3. Finio B, Shepherd R, & Lipson H (2013) Air-Powered Soft Robots for K-12 Classrooms. in IEEE Integrated STEM Education Conference (Princeton, NJ).

Book Chapters

  1. Larson, C. M. & Shepherd, R. F., 3D Bioprinting Technologies for Cellular Engineering. In Singh, A. & Gaharwar, A. (Eds.) Microscale Technologies for Cell Engineering, Springer (2015).